Legacy of the Ancient Maya Civilization

The ancient Maya, a diverse group of indigenous people who lived in parts of present-day Mexico, Belize and Guatemala, had one of the most sophisticated and complex civilizations in the western hemisphere. This mysterious ancient civilization was one of the most important ancient cultures to develop on our planet reaching the peaks of its power and influence around the sixth century A.D. Though the collapse of the Maya civilization during the ninth century A.D. is a major conundrum in the history of mankind, the ancient Maya never failed to leave behind their legacies which have still contributed to the lives of today.  Although the Maya have excelled in many aspects, they have left behind the legacies and noted for their invention of chocolate, a writing system and calendar.

maja-tenyek3.png

(Picture of Cocoa Beans that is processed into a beverage for the ancient Mayans)

Guatemala is known as the birthplace of chocolate, with the Mayans worshiping the cacao tree in such a high esteem, they referred to chocolate as the “food of gods”.[1] The Mayans consumed chocolate by first harvesting cacao beans from its trees; they fermented and dried them, roasted them, removed their shells, and grounded them into a paste by which this procedure is used until today. They often combined this paste with water to create a nutritious drink which may have been the most common Mayan method of consuming chocolate.[2]. Many ancient Mayan artifacts are decorated with paintings of people gathering, preparing, or drinking cacao. It appears to have been an integral part of their religious and social lives as it was often consumed during religious ceremonies and marriage celebrations, the bride and groom would exchange this beloved drink. In the tombs of deceased rulers, the Maya included cacao beans and various vessels associated with cacao consumption. The Maya were so fond of chocolate that they not only gathered cacao beans in the forests, they learned to grow the trees in their gardens. All Mayans could enjoy cocoa, regardless of their social status and the demand for cocoa beans and the beverage it produced brought a huge network of trade routes throughout the region. A change began to happen when the Aztecs conquered the Mayans, they were forced to pay taxes called “tributes” which were paid in cocoa. Therefore the Aztecs, who couldn’t grow their own cocoa, would have a supply. Cocoa beans became money to the Mayans and one city study suggests that of the 11 million beans paid as taxes per year, only two million were consumed and the rest was used as money.[3] When the Spanish had their first encounter with chocolate, they didn’t like it and made tremendous changes to the taste. Spiced with honey and cane sugar, it became a different drink — one that the Europeans loved. The artifact above shows cocoa beans. Fast forward one century and chocolate is now enjoyed by many around the world and the legacy of the Mayans inventions lingers on the tongues of many today.

Maya-hieroglyphic-panel-La-Corona_s-palace

(Picture of Hieroglyphic writings used by the Ancient Maya)

The Maya hieroglyphic writing is arguably one of the most visually striking writing systems of the world. The hieroglyphic writing system of the Maya must be interpreted from a triple combination of images which are pictographs or glyphs.[4] The Mayan script is, therefore, a combination of signs, representing syllables and words and it has survived in stone carvings, on stucco, wood, pottery and cloth artifacts and in codices as shown above. It was historically significant to the development of early Mayan society because it allowed people to transmit culture and leave a record for future generations, keep records of significant events as well as religious purposes.[5] The writing system created a barrier of classes between people because it is probable that only small elite of the Maya population could read, possibly only the nobility and priests.  The Maya system of writing would go on to influence other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs, who build upon the progress made by the Maya and incorporating even more phonetic elements into their writing. The Maya writing system also continued to be used up to the Spanish conquest until it was prohibited. Even then, despite the deliberate destruction of Maya texts, it was continued to be used into the 18th century CE.

fgf

(Picture of the Ancient Maya Calendar)

Lastly, what we call the Mayan Calendar is actually a set of three interlocking calendars, the sacred calendar of 260 days called the Tzolkin, the solar calendar of 365 days known as the Haab, and a Calendar round which after every 52 years, the Tzolkin and a Haab day come back in sync with each other.[6]  In addition, they had names for every day except the last five days of the final month. These days were considered to be unlucky and were simply referred to as the xma kaba kin which means “days without name.” The ancient Maya were accomplished observers of the sky and using their knowledge or astronomy and mathematics, they developed an accurate calendar system which is still used until today. This invention was historically significant to the development of early society because it is a method of measuring time accurately a purpose as it was used to measure time into the future or past. Quite simply, it was used to measure hundreds or thousands of years, as opposed to the days, weeks and months in our modern calendars. One of the most important roles of the calendar was to correlate the actions of Maya rulers to historic and mythological events as well as predicted the future; one of which the predictions was the end of the world on December 21st, 2012.[7] The Maya also believed that a person’s birthday determined their fate through life. A newborn child was thus connected with a particular god as well as remained under its influence depending on the birthdate. Until today, the most precise and sophisticated calendar ever created is one of the legacies of the ancient Maya.[8] The ancient Maya cycle still survives in southern Mexico and the Maya highlands, under the care of calendar priests who still keep the 260-day count for divination and other activities.

In conclusion, the Maya were undoubtedly among the great ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica. They flourished in the jungles of present-day Mexico (south), Guatemala and Belize. Although they had one of the most complex and sophisticated civilizations, their legacies lay in their inventions of chocolate, a writing system and calendar.

 

[1] Jessica Festa, “Sweet Guatemala: A Look At The Country’s Mayan Chocolate History And Modern Experiences,” Epic and Culture (February 2014): https://epicureandculture.com/history-of-chocolate-guatemala/

[2] “Chocolate and the Mayans” How stuff works, https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/food-facts/history-of-chocolate1.htm

[3] Scotty Hendricks, “Chocolate was used as money in the ancient Maya civilization” Big Think (June 2018): https://bigthink.com/scotty-hendricks/a-sweet-economic-system-chocolate-was-money-in-ancient-maya-civilization

[4] Mark Cartwright, “Maya Writing.” Ancient History Encyclopedia (February 2014): https://www.ancient.eu/article/655/.

[5] Robert Bitto, “The Writing of the Ancient Maya: A History in their Own Words,” Mexico Unexplained (May 2016): http://mexicounexplained.com/writing-ancient-maya-history-words/

[6] Diana Davies, “The Maya Calendar Explained (KS2).” Maya Archaeologist (January 2018): http://mayaarchaeologist.co.uk/index.php/2016/12/31/maya-calendar-system/.

[7] Tim Walker, “What have the Mayans ever done for us… apart from predict the end of the world?” Independent ( December 2012): https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/what-have-the-mayans-ever-done-for-us-apart-from-predict-the-end-of-the-world-8424562.html

[8] Niclas Marie, “The Mayan Calendar & Concept of Time” Time Center: https://www.timecenter.com/articles/the-mayan-calendar-and-concept-of-time/

 

 

 

Bibliography

Bitto, Robert. “The Writing of the Ancient Maya: A History in their Own Words,” Mexico Unexplained (May 2016): http://mexicounexplained.com/writing-ancient-maya-history-words/

Cartwright, Mark. “Maya Writing.” Ancient History Encyclopedia (February 2014): https://www.ancient.eu/article/655/.

“Chocolate and the Mayans” How stuff works, https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/food-facts/history-of-chocolate1.htm

Davies, Dianna. “The Maya Calendar Explained (KS2).” Maya Archaeologist (January 2018): http://mayaarchaeologist.co.uk/index.php/2016/12/31/maya-calendar-system/.

Digital Image: http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/37559

Festa, Jessica.  “Sweet Guatemala: A Look At The Country’s Mayan Chocolate History And Modern Experiences,” Epic and Culture (February 2014): https://epicureandculture.com/history-of-chocolate-guatemala/

Gleghorn, Hannah. Replica Mayan Calendar: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/replica-mayan-calendar-665753?src=A5uTE6YMBnEgS4o7cVwvbQ-1-12

Hendricks, Scotty. “Chocolate was used as money in the ancient Maya civilization” Big Think (June 2018): https://bigthink.com/scotty-hendricks/a-sweet-economic-system-chocolate-was-money-in-ancient-maya-civilization

Katalin, Visy. (November 2014): http://magyarno.com/10-teny-a-majakrol

Marie, Niclas.  “The Mayan Calendar & Concept of Time” Time Center: https://www.timecenter.com/articles/the-mayan-calendar-and-concept-of-time/

Walker, Tim. “What have the Mayans ever done for us… apart from predict the end of the world?” Independent (December 2012): https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/what-have-the-mayans-ever-done-for-us-apart-from-predict-the-end-of-the-world-8424562.html

Sponsored Post Learn from the experts: Create a successful blog with our brand new courseThe WordPress.com Blog

Are you new to blogging, and do you want step-by-step guidance on how to publish and grow your blog? Learn more about our new Blogging for Beginners course and get 50% off through December 10th.

WordPress.com is excited to announce our newest offering: a course just for beginning bloggers where you’ll learn everything you need to know about blogging from the most trusted experts in the industry. We have helped millions of blogs get up and running, we know what works, and we want you to to know everything we know. This course provides all the fundamental skills and inspiration you need to get your blog started, an interactive community forum, and content updated annually.

Decline of the Ancient Maya Civilization

041618_BB_maya_feat.jpg

The Maya were undoubtedly among the great ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica. They flourished in the jungles of present-day Mexico (south), Guatemala and Belize. This mysterious ancient civilization was one of the most important ancient cultures to develop on our planet, noted for the Maya script which was the only known developed writing system of the Pre-Columbian Americas. However, the collapse of the Maya civilization during the ninth century A.D. is a major conundrum in the history of mankind and while numerous explanations have been put forward to explain, the three most significant causes of the decline of Mayan civilization are famine, epidemic diseases and climate change.

[1]

calcite-encusted-skeleton.jpg

(Remains of a woman from Ancient Maya)

The classic period in Mesoamerica between 800 and 935 CE saw one of the most dramatic civilization collapses in history. Within a century, the civilization fell into a permanent decline. Surrounded by pyramids, temples and agriculture; the Maya discussed philosophy, developed an accurate solar-year calendar as well as a writing system.[2] In one way, the Maya were victims of their success. Many scholars believe that the Maya were exceeding the carrying capacity of the ecosystem; by the ninth century, the Maya had exhausted the environment around them to the point where it could no longer sustain a very large population. Pre-classic Maya from 1000 B.C. – 300 A.D. practiced basic subsistence agriculture: slash-and-burn cultivation on small family plots. They planted mostly corn, beans and squash. Basic fishing was practiced on the coasts and as the Maya civilization advanced, the cities grew.[3] Their population was growing much larger than could be fed by local production. The improved agricultural techniques had picked up some slack; however, the large population in the cities put great strain on the food production. At its peak, the Maya civilization was inhabited by 15-22 million people. The population was simply too large for political, social, and environmental resources available. Human bones from this time period show signs of severe malnutrition. Excavated graves of Mayan people including many premature infants between the ages of three to six show suffering of hunger.[4] There is evidence such as the artifact of the skill above for vitamin deficiency and premature death. Examination of the bones also found that the children not only suffered from malnutrition but also anemia, a condition caused by a deficiency of iron in the blood. In this way, Ancient Maya slowly came to its collapse as a result of overpopulation and famine. This widespread hunger and malnutrition would have lowered the Mayan’s ability to resist disease, making them susceptible to getting sick.

[5]

fgf

(A picture is shown of how the Ancient Maya suffered from epidemic diseases such as smallpox)

Another factor to the decline of the ancient Mayan civilization was disease. A widespread disease can result in rapid depopulation. The Mayans lived near tropical rainforest areas and contagious diseases that are spread by parasites are common in rainforest regions. If some of the diseases such as malaria which is a disease that is carried and spread by infected mosquitoes, were to infect a person at a young age, it affects their health resulting in developmental issues as well as making them vulnerable to other illnesses later on in life.[6] Specifically, due to an epidemic of the plant hopper-borne virus, maize mosaic virus (MMV), is proposed as a primary contributing cause of the collapse.[7] Maize Mosaic virus is a devastating disease transmitted by the corn planthopper, an insect restricted to tropic lowlands. Major diseases in the tropics are assessed thus it has been serious only where corn is grown continuously through the year in wet or irrigated tropics. Corn was the main food for the Mayans and Maize Mosaic corn disease spread through pestered corns containing contagious diseases which were spread throughout the Mayan city-states. The infectious illnesses were spread into the Mayans system, resulting in the death of almost the entire Mayan population. With the lack of modern medicine, the distinguished and noble people had no idea how to treat the illnesses. Contagious diseases such as measles, mumps, cholera, and smallpox spread and killed about ninety percent of the Mayan population. This lead to the Mayan collapse and now, what is left are the city structures.

[8]

961754056_362de3d182_b_1

(Evidence of Tree Rings shown to determine climate change)

Lastly, climate change causes a catastrophic collapse in human history. Studies have shown that the Maya civilization collapsed due to a century-long drought which took place around the ninth century. However, the Maya contributed to the collapse of their civilization by transforming the land through removing nearly all of the forest and replacing it with agricultural crops. Though deforestation didn’t cause a drought, it amplified natural droughts when they occurred. Plants interact with the atmosphere; dark plants such as dense tropical forest absorb energy from the sun while lighter coloured plants reflect sunlight which cools the atmosphere. Water vapour needs to rise and condense to create a rainstorm while the cool air sinks. Without warm and unstable air rising into the atmosphere, rainstorms become less common. Since the Maya burned and cut down timber very fast, deforestation levels were high using wood for construction purposes as the cities expanded. [9] This causes lack of rain which helped raise temperatures on land. The energy of the sun would hit the bare ground either heating it up or causing water to evaporate from the soil. Without forests, there was less production of moisture in the atmosphere and croplands holding less water; causing droughts to deepen more as the suns energy heated the ground.  Rainfall was declined and as crops replaced forests, more sunlight bounced back into space.[10] Using dendrochronology, a study of tree rings to date environmental changes, a team from the University of Arkansas observed the Mayan drought through tree rings and concluded that the drought was more severe and prolonged than anything in the modern era.[11] Trees can live for hundreds of years and can experience a variety of environmental conditions: wet years, dry years, cold years and much more. From this, researchers are able to determine the year of formation for each tree ring and analyzed what the rings’ growth patterns had to say about how soil moisture varied from growth season to growth season over the years, a parameter directly associated with rainfall. Using dendrochronology, researchers are able to determine the climate changes that affected the ancient Maya and the drought that overcame them.

In conclusion, although the Ancient Maya were among the great ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica, building cities with elaborate ceremonial center, and their downfall remains a mystery. However, the three utmost reasons that contributed to their collapse are famine, epidemic disease and climate change.

[1] Bendedict Kim, Belize, http://discovermagazine.com/2014/dec/15-cave-of-the-crystal-maiden

[2] Nicholas Mott, “Why the Maya Fell: Climate Change, Conflict—And a Trip to the Beach?” National Geographic, November 11, 2012, https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/11/121109-maya-civilization-climate-change-belize-science/

[3] Ursula M. Cowgill, An Agricultural Study of the Southern Maya Lowlands (Connecticut: Yale University, 1962), 276-277

[4] Rossella Lorenzi, “Mayan Bones Reveal Painful End,” Seeker, November 14, 2012, https://www.seeker.com/mayan-bones-reveal-painful-end-1766045728.html

[5] Courtesy Granger, Mesoamericans succumb to deadly measles epidemic, https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/184.html

[6] “Mayans Disappearance – Why did the Mayans Collapse?” IP Factly (July 2015): http://ipfactly.com/why-did-the-mayans-collapse/

[7] James L. Brewbaker, “Diseases of Maize in the Wet Lowland Tropics and the Collapse of the Classic Maya Civilization,” Economic Botany 33, No. 2 (June 1979): 101. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4254035

[8] Dave Scriven, Tree Ring. 2007. Australia, https://www.flickr.com/photos/furious-angel/961754056/

[9] Robin Wylie, “Severe drought’s explain the mysterious fall of the Maya,” BBC (February 2016): http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160222-severe-droughts-explain-the-mysterious-fall-of-the-maya

[10] Kevin Krajick, “Forest Razing by Ancient Maya Worsened Droughts, Says Study” Lamon- Doherty Earth Observatory (August 2012): https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/news-events/forest-razing-ancient-maya-worsened-droughts-says-study

[11] Tiffany Stecker, “Tree Rings Reveal History of History-Changing Mexican Droughts,” Scientific American (February 2011): https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/tree-rings-reveal-mexican-drought-history/

 

 

 

Bibliography 

Brewbaker, James L. “Diseases of Maize in the Wet Lowland Tropics and the Collapse of the Classic Maya Civilization,” Economic Botany 33, No. 2 (June 1979): 101. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4254035

 

Butler, Rhett A. Slash-and-burn agriculture in Belize (2008) Belize, https://news.mongabay.com/2012/03/airborne-lasers-discover-undocumented-deforestation-in-belize-park/

 

Cowgill, M Ursula, An Agricultural Study of the Southern Maya Lowlands. Connecticut: Yale University, 1962

 

Granger, Courtesy. Mesoamericans succumb to deadly measles epidemic, https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/184.html

 

Kim, Bendedict. Belize, http://discovermagazine.com/2014/dec/15-cave-of-the-crystal-maiden

 

Krajick, Kevin. “Forest Razing by Ancient Maya Worsened Droughts, Says Study” Lamon- Doherty Earth Observatory (August 21, 2012): https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/news-events/forest-razing-ancient-maya-worsened-droughts-says-study

 

Lorenzi, Rossella. “Mayan Bones Reveal Painful End,” Seeker (November 14, 2012): https://www.seeker.com/mayan-bones-reveal-painful-end-1766045728.html

 

“Mayans Disappearance – Why did the Mayans Collapse?” IP Factly (July 2015): http://ipfactly.com/why-did-the-mayans-collapse/

 

Mott, Nicholas. “Why the Maya Fell: Climate Change, Conflict—And a Trip to the Beach?” National Geographic. (November 11, 2012): https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/11/121109-maya-civilization-climate-change-belize-science/

 

Scriven, Dave. Tree Ring. 2007. Australia, https://www.flickr.com/photos/furious-angel/961754056/

 

Stecker, Tiffany. “Tree Rings Reveal History of History-Changing Mexican Droughts,” Scientific American (February 8, 2011): https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/tree-rings-reveal-mexican-drought-history/

 

Wylie, Robin. “Severe droughts explain the mysterious fall of the Maya,” BBC (February 22, 2016): http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160222-severe-droughts-explain-the-mysterious-fall-of-the-maya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Did Ancient Maya choose to Flourish?

2e5e43-20130620-maya4

In the lands of south-eastern Mexico, the Maya culture was alive and growing. Ancient Maya expanded for increasing population. Starting in the Yucatan, the Maya expanded their borders around southern Mexico, Guatemala, northern Belize, and Western Honduras. It is said there were more than forty Maya cities. Their populations ranged from five thousand to fifty thousand in each city. The total amount of people may have been around two million or so, at one time. Farming was a way of life, as we see settlements of village farmers established in both the central lowlands regions as well as the southern highland regions. Ancient Maya people were clever and hardworking farmers who used a variety of techniques to raise enough food to feed the large populations in Maya cities. Lastly, Maya rulers managed the production and distribution of status goods used to enhance their prestige and power. Over time Maya rulers managed ever-larger portions of the economy. In conclusion, Ancient Maya civilization expanded for increasing population growing their borders around southern Mexico, Guatemala, northern Belize, and Western Honduras.

Religion Of Ancient Maya

250px-God_D_Itzamna

The Mayan Religion involved several aspects of Nature, astronomy, and rituals. Most God’s were represented a form of Nature like Sun God, Kinih Ahous, or Maize God, Yum Kaax. The Mayan Religion was Polytheist, and they worshiped more than 165 Gods. They believed that the God’s were human-like and they were born, grew up and died. God’s would do human activites such as creating, planting, and harvesting maize, fighting wars and much more. This led to the Gods having interrelated jobs with their hierarchy. The Mayans were known for their calendars and astronomical buildings. These were used during their religious rituals. Similar to the Egyptians, the Mayans built Pyramid like temples for religious reasons. The main difference in shape is that the Mayan pyramids have a flat top to build temples on top. These pyramids were sacred and each usually had two or four staricases used for priests getting close to the Gods. They believed that every person had an animal companion who shared their soul. The Mayan religion believed that most peoples souls’ were vanquished to spend their afterlives in the underworld which contained evil Gods, represented as jaguars, the symbol of the night.  Only those who died at childbirth or were sacrificed would have escaped the underworld.

Historically Significant Artifacts

 

(Picture of the Mayan Calender)

Ancient Mayan Calendar

What we call the Mayan Calendar is actually a set of three interlocking calendars, the sacred calendar of 260 days called the Tzolkin, the solar calendar of 365 days known as the Haab, and a Calendar round which after every 52 years, the Tzolkin and a Haab day come back in sync with each other.[1] The ancient Maya were accomplished observers of the sky and using their knowledge or astronomy and mathematics, they developed an accurate calendar system which is still used until today. This invention was historically significant to the development of early society because it is a method of measuring time accurately a purpose as it was used to measure time into the future or past. Quite simply, it was used to measure hundreds or thousands of years, as opposed to the days, weeks and months in our modern calendars. One of the most important roles of the calendar was to correlate the actions of Maya rulers to historic and mythological events as well as predicted the future.

 

 Mayan Hieroglyphics

4953318-Mayan_hieroglyphs-0

(Picture of Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing)

The Maya hieroglyphic writing is arguably one of the most visually striking writing systems of the world. The hieroglyphic writing system of the Maya must be interpreted from a triple combination of images which are pictographs or glyphs.[2] The Mayan script is, therefore, a combination of signs, representing syllables and words and it has survived in stone carvings, on stucco, wood, pottery and cloth artifacts and in codices. It was historically significant to the development of early Mayan society because it allowed people to transmit culture and leave a record for future generations, keep records of significant events as well as religious purposes. The writing system created a barrier of classes between people because it is probable that only small elite of the Maya population could read, possibly only the nobility and priests.[3] The May believed that writing was invented by the god Itzamna and it was sacred.

 

Terrace Farming

kibgsheng rice terrace 3

(Terrace Farming in Ancient Maya)

The mystery of how the Maya could produce enough nutritious food to feed everyone, considering the land they inhabited and worked with no metal tools or draft animals is dealt with Terrace farming. Terrace farming is historically significant to the development of early society because in order to deal with rainforests, swampy areas and mountainous hillsides, the Maya had to engineer terraces on the steep hillsides. Small fields were cut into a hillside and held with a wall creating a series of steps that reduces water runoff and erosion.[4] These terraces made the most productive use of mountainous or hilly land.

 

 

[1]           Davies, Dianna. “The Maya Calendar Explained (KS2).” Maya Archaeologist. January 15, 2018. Accessed April 04, 2018. http://mayaarchaeologist.co.uk/index.php/2016/12/31/maya-calendar-system/.

[2]           Cartwright, Mark. “Maya Writing.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified February 12, 2014. Accessed April 04, 2018. https://www.ancient.eu/article/655/.

 

[3]           Cartwright, Mark. “Maya Writing.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified February 12, 2014. Accessed April 04, 2018. https://www.ancient.eu/article/655/.

 

[4]           “Maya Agricultural Methods,” History, May 25, 2017, accessed April 04, 2018, https://www.historyonthenet.com/maya-agricultural-methods/.

 

 

Bibliography

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing.” Encyclopædia Britannica.            February 21, 2007. Accessed April 04, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mayan-hieroglyphic-writing.

 

Cannato, Vincent J., Barbara Will, Daniel Feller, Danny Heitman, and Steven Nadler. “Texting in Ancient Mayan Hieroglyphs.” National Endowment for the Humanities. January 30, 2018. Accessed             April 04, 2018. https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2018/winter/feature/texting-in-ancient-mayan-hieroglyphs.

 

Cartwright, Mark. “Maya Food & Agriculture.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Accessed April 04,    2018. https://www.ancient.eu/article/802/maya-food–agriculture/.

 

Davies, Dianna. “The Maya Calendar Explained (KS2).” Maya Archaeologist. January 15, 2018.                 Accessed April 04, 2018. http://mayaarchaeologist.co.uk/index.php/2016/12/31/maya-calendar-system/.

 

Digital image. Mysterypile Ancient Mysteries. Accessed April 4, 2018.          http://blog.mysterypile.com/2013/08/face-in-mayan-calendar.html

 

Digital image. Taringa. Accessed April 4, 2018.          https://www.taringa.net/posts/imagenes/11566962/Terrazas-De-Arroz-Longsheng-34-Fotos.html

 

Mark, Joshua J. “Maya Civilization.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Accessed April 04, 2018.                           https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Civilization/.

 

“Maya Agricultural Methods.” History. May 25, 2017. Accessed April 04, 2018.                                                                                  https://www.historyonthenet.com/maya-agricultural-methods/.

 

Palenque Site Museum in Mexico. Digital image. Travel Blog. Accessed April 4, 2018.                           https://www.travelblog.org/Photos/4953318